Dan's Blog on Conservation:

Dry StretchResilience 8/18/17

Annualrainfall hasn’t changed, but according to ARS data, for over one hundred years,since 1895 precipitation comes earlier and harder during the growing season.

Crops getmade with August rain. If you haven’t yet, you need to plan on giving your cropthe moisture it needs during a dry August by improving soil organic matter.Every pound of soil organic matter absorbs 18 – 20 lb of water. Water weighsabout 8 lb per gallon. Do the math.

Every onepercent increase in soil organic matter makes 20,000 to 25,000 gallons of wateravailable to a growing crop. This is about equivalent to a one inch rain.Wouldn’t we like to have a one inch rain right about now?

We’velearned from local and statewide data that organic matter can be increased onepercent easily within 10 years and maybe as little as five. Call me. Let mehelp you get started on your August rain.

 

Arrange Cover Crops 7/20/17

Harvest is crazy enough. Now’s the timeto get your cover crops arranged.

We can help select your cover crop basedon current crop, next year’s crop, planting method and timing. We can provideyou with phone numbers for sources.

 

Ask Lois Mann about the SWCD ten dollarincentive. 574-223-3220 ext 3

 

Tillage Trends 6/16/17

On Tuesday we finished the spring tillage transect. We travel a set route. At every half mile we record crop, tillage, residue and cover crop. The spreadsheet we use then translates our data into percentages. We can then compare years to determine trends.

Two trends stands out. There has been an increase in tillage used to plant soybeans. Soybeans planted without tillage descended from 2011 at 42% to 27% in 2017. 

This appears to me to correlate with the increase in use of vertical tillage implements. That operation is typically followed in the spring with a “finisher” the mashercrasherbasherslasher tool which does an efficient job of destroying soil structure and leaves very little residue on top to intercept the hammering raindrop. The ephemeral gullies we saw during the transect show the aftermath of those decisions. 

It’s time to bust a myth. Corn stalks are decomposed by microbial activity. If the bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes macro arthropods and worms are in low numbers or non-existent, corn stalks will decompose very slowly regardless of the chunk size. If your soil is healthy and full of those organisms and you feed those organisms sugars exuded from the roots of cover crops, you’ll be fighting to keep residue!

The second noteworthy trend is the increase in cover crop usage from 1% of cropland in 2011 to 9% in 2017. Your neighbors thank you.

Multiple farmers around the county are now growing their own cereal rye for their cover crop needs. That’s another good trend!

Call Lois Mann for info on the Fulton County SWCD Cover Crop Cost Share Program at 574-223-3220 ext 3.

  

Plant Something in that Hole! 6/6/17

The timing, amount and lack of infiltration repelled rainfall into depressed pockets. Since it was getting late, many farmers planted the dry parts of a field and left the low parts unplanted.

The May 17/18 rains moved a lot of soil into these depressed pockets filling any kind of soil void which will further impede drainage. 

If these wet holes are not planted to cash crop, they need to be planted to something which will penetrate the deposited dirt, tie the profile back together and feed organisms which will work to get the structure re-established to create a path for water infiltration.

Herbicide may be a problem. Base your planting decision on what you find volunteering around July 1. If you see broadleaf plants lean toward clovers, buckwheat, beans, sunflower, flax, cowpeas, radish, rapeseed, turnip. 

If grass is volunteering on July 1, plant sorghum, millet, corns, oats, barley, rye, wheat. 

Since you don’t know what will succeed, sow multiple species to spread the risk.

Call Lois for details on the Fulton SWCD cover crop program 574-223-2330 ext 3 by mid June. Call me if I can help from the technical side.

  

5/4/17

Seed does not germinate well in cold wet soils.After years of jumping-the-gun and needing to replant I’ve learned a few things.-Be patient.  After mid-May, the chances of success are much better.-Keep something…anything growing to evapotranspire moisture.  Most Springs are wet.

Cereal rye, wheat, triticale, barley, and oats will use about an inch of water per day.  Old timers planted cereal rye in muck to help dry it out.-Don’t listen to what others say and don’t worry about being different.  I heard a proponent of cover crops say he hoped people did not adopt his way of farming because it gives him a competitive edge. Enjoy being different. You’re the subject of conversation. People watch what you do.  Sooner or later people will come to you for advice.

-Keep learning. Science supports the use of cover crops. Always experiment with something.  Tillage destroys soil structure which removes the air holes. Don’t till. Tillage requires more tillage. Pulverized powdered soils crust.-Learn from mistakes.The Fulton SWCD offers an incentive for new users to plant cover crops. Call Lois for details.USDA can now take applications for EQIP for 2018.

  
  
  
  
  

Fulton County SWCD  (574) 223-3220 ext. 3